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Radiology is a medical specialty that employs the use of imaging to both diagnose and treat disease visualized within the body. Radiologists use an array of imaging technologies such as X-ray radiography, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), nuclear medicine, positron emission tomography (PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to diagnose or treat diseases. Interventional radiology is the performance of (usually minimally invasive) medical procedures with the guidance of imaging technologies.

Ultrasound scanning

An ultrasound scan is a painless test that uses sound waves to create images of organs and structures inside your body. It is a very commonly used test. As it uses sound waves and not radiation, it is thought to be harmless. Doppler and duplex scans are used to visualize blood or fluids flowing through the body.

What is an ultrasound test used for?
It is used in many situations. The way the ultrasound bounces back from different tissues can help to determine the size, shape and consistency of organs, structures and abnormalities. So, it can:
- Help to monitor the growth of an unborn child, and check for abnormalities. An ultrasound scan is routine for pregnant women.
- Detect abnormalities of heart structures such as the heart valves. (An ultrasound scan of the heart is called an echocardiogram.)
- Help to diagnose problems of the liver, gallbladder (such as gallstones), pancreas, thyroid gland, lymph nodes, ovaries, testes, kidneys, bladder and breast. For example, it can help to determine if an abnormal lump in one of these organs is a solid tumor or a fluid-filled cyst.
-Detect abnormal widening of blood vessels (aneurysms).

Radiology- Colour Doppler

A Doppler ultrasound test uses reflected sound waves to see how blood flows through a blood vessel. It helps doctors evaluate blood flow through major arteries and veins, such as those of the arms, legs, and neck. It can show blocked or reduced flow of blood through narrow areas in the major arteries of the neck that could cause a stroke camera. It also can reveal blood clots in leg veins (deep vein thrombosis, or DVT) that could break loose and block blood flow to the lungs (pulmonary embolism). During pregnancy, Doppler ultrasound may be used to look at blood flow in an unborn baby (fetus) to check the health of the fetus.

Digital X-Ray

Digital radiography is a form of X-ray imaging, where digital X-ray sensors are used instead of traditional photographic film. Advantages include time efficiency through bypassing chemical processing and the ability to digitally transfer and enhance images. Also less radiation can be used to produce an image of similar contrast to conventional radiography.

Instead of X-ray film, digital radiography uses a digital image capture device. This gives advantages of immediate image preview and availability; elimination of costly film processing steps; a wider dynamic range, which makes it more forgiving for over and under-exposure.

ECG (Computerized)

Electrocardiography is the recording of the electrical activity of the heart. Traditionally this is in the form of a transthoracic (across the thorax or chest) interpretation of the electrical activity of the heart over a period of time, as detected by electrodes attached to the surface of the skin and recorded or displayed by a device external to the body. The recording produced by this noninvasive procedure is termed an electrocardiogram (also ECG or EKG). It is possible to record ECGs invasively using an implantable loop recorder.

An ECG is used to measure the heart's electrical conduction system. It picks up electrical impulses generated by the polarization and depolarization of cardiac tissue and translates into a waveform. The waveform is then used to measure the rate and regularity of heartbeats, as well as the size and position of the chambers, the presence of any damage to the heart, and the effects of drugs or devices used to regulate the heart, such as a pacemaker.


An echocardiogram is a test that uses sound waves to create pictures of the heart. The picture is more detailed than a standard x-ray image. An echocardiogram does not expose you to radiation.


Colonoscopy is a test that allows your doctor to look at the inner lining of your large intestine (rectum and colon). He or she uses a thin, flexible tube called a colonoscope to look at the colon. A colonoscopy helps find ulcers, colon polyps, tumors, and areas of inflammation or bleeding. During a colonoscopy, tissue samples can be collected (biopsy) and abnormal growths can be taken out. Colonoscopy can also be used as a screening test to check for cancer or precancerous growths in the colon or rectum (polyps).

The colonoscope is a thin, flexible tube that ranges from 48 in. (122 cm) to 72 in. (183 cm) long. A small video camera is attached to the colonoscope so that your doctor can take pictures or video of the large intestine (colon). The colonoscope can be used to look at the whole colon and the lower part of the small intestine. A test called sigmoidoscopy shows only the rectum and the lower part of the colon.


An endoscopy involves examining the inside of a person's body using an endoscope. An endoscope is a medical device consisting of a long, thin, flexible (or rigid) tube which has a light and a video camera. Images of the inside of the patient's body can be seen on a screen. The whole endoscopy is recorded so that doctors can check it again. Endoscopy is a minimally invasive diagnostic medical procedure. It is used to examine the interior surfaces of an organ or tissue. The endoscope can also be used for enabling biopsies and retrieving foreign objects.

TMT (thread Mill Test)

TMT is a cardiovascular stress test that uses treadmill bicycle exercise with electrocardiography (ECG) and blood pressure monitoring. It is a test used to provide information about how the heart responds to exertion
A stress test can be used to test for heart disease. Stress tests are tests performed by a doctor and/or trained technician to determine the amount of stress that your heart can manage before developing either an abnormal rhythm or evidence of ischemia (not enough blood flow to the heart muscle

Why Do I Need a Stress Test?
Your doctor uses the stress test to:
-Determine if there is adequate blood flow to your heart during increasing levels of activity.
-Evaluate the effectiveness of your heart medications to control angina and ischemia.
-Determine the likelihood of having coronary heart disease and the need for further evaluation.
-Check the effectiveness of procedures done to improve blood flow within the heart vessels in people- with coronary heart disease.
-Identify abnormal heart rhythms.
-Help you develop a safe exercise program.


Hematology is the study of blood, the blood-forming organs, and blood diseases. Hematology includes the study of etiology, diagnosis, treatment, prognosis, and prevention of blood diseases that affect the production of blood and its components, such as blood cells, hemoglobin, blood proteins, and the mechanism of coagulation.

Hematology is the measurement of elements of the blood. It can be important in the early identification of physical illness or disease. Variations in the size, shape and number of blood cells can give early insight into the general functioning of blood and the bone marrow where blood is made and clinical factors that may affect it.


Biochemistry, sometimes called biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

Biochemistry tests measure the chemical substances carried by the blood. Key tests indicate the level of functioning of the liver and kidneys. They also measure the levels of fats and sugar circulating the body.

Clinical Pathology

Clinical pathology is a medical specialty that is concerned with the diagnosis of disease based on the laboratory analysis of bodily fluids, such as blood, urine, and tissues using the tools of chemistry, microbiology, hematology and molecular pathology.


Histopathology refers to the microscopic examination of tissue in order to study the manifestations of disease. Specifically, in clinical medicine, histopathology refers to the examination of a biopsy or surgical specimen by a pathologist, after the specimen has been processed and histological sections have been placed onto glass slides. In contrast, cytopathology examines free cells or tissue fragments.


Microbiology is the study of microscopic organisms, either unicellular (single cell), multicellular (cell colony), or acellular (lacking cells). Microbiology encompasses numerous sub-disciplines including virology, mycology, parasitology, and bacteriology.


Cytology is the study of cells. Cytology is that branch of life science, which deals with the study of cells in terms of structure, function and chemistry.
Cytopathology: the study of cellular disease and the use of cellular changes for the diagnosis of disease.
Cell biology: the study of (normal) cellular anatomy, function and chemistry.


Simply put, endocrinology is the study of endocrine glands. Endocrine glands are a group of glands in the body which secrete hormones. The purpose of the secreted hormones is to evoke a specific response in other cells of the body which are located far away. We utilize very specialized lab tests to help pinpoint the underlying cause of your health problem.

Are you concerned about menopause? osteoporosis? The cause can be pin-pointed by utilizing these specialized tests involving the thyroid, the adrenal glands, and the male and female reproductive systems.

Molecular biology

Molecular biology is the branch of biology that deals with the molecular basis of biological activity. This field overlaps with other areas of biology and chemistry, particularly genetics and biochemistry. Molecular biology chiefly concerns itself with understanding the interactions between the various systems of a cell, including the interactions between the different types of DNA, RNA and protein biosynthesis as well as learning how these interactions are regulated.


Immunology is a branch of biomedical science that covers the study of all aspects of the immune system. It deals with the physiological functioning of the immune system in states of both health and diseases; malfunctions of the immune system in immunological disorders (autoimmune diseases, hypersensitivities, immune deficiency, transplant rejection); the physical, chemical and physiological characteristics of the components of the immune system in vitro, in situ and in vivo. Immunology has applications in several disciplines of science, and as such is further divided.

- Classical immunology
- Developmental immunology
- Diagnostic immunology
- Cancer immunology
- Reproductive immunology
- Immunotherapy


Serology is the scientific study of plasma serum and other bodily fluids. In practice, the term usually refers to the diagnostic identification of antibodies in the serum. Such antibodies are typically formed in response to an infection (against a given microorganism), against other foreign proteins (in response, for example, to a mismatched blood transfusion), or to one's own proteins (in instances of autoimmune disease).

Serological tests may be performed for diagnostic purposes when an infection is suspected, in rheumatic illnesses, and in many other situations, such as checking an individual's blood type. Serology blood tests help to diagnose patients with certain immune deficiencies associated with the lack of antibodies, such as X-linked agammaglobulinemia. In such cases, tests for antibodies will be consistently negative.

There are several serology techniques that can be used depending on the antibodies being studied. These include: ELISA, agglutination, precipitation, complement-fixation, and fluorescent antibodies.

Some serological tests are not limited to blood serum, but can also be performed on other bodily fluids such as semen and saliva, which have (roughly) similar properties to serum.

Serological tests may also be used forensically, specifically for a piece of evidence (e.g., linking a rapist to a semen sample).